Cognitive apprenticeship: An effective pedagogy in open and flexible learning

Yousaf Khan
Allama Iqbal Open University
Islamabad, Pakistan

Cognitive apprenticeship is a learning theory that explains how the learning of concepts, processes, strategies and procedures of different schools, and related thinking and understanding skills, can be learned by engaging learners in e-learning-type activities or designs in an ICT-rich environment. It provides schooling through teaching methods (pedagogy) — modelling, coaching, scaffolding and fading on the basis of individuals’ zone of proximal development (ZPD) or prior learning and interaction with more knowledgeable others (MKO) — to fill in the gaps in knowledge and skill; and it helps the learner to develop his/her own cognitive and metacognitive abilities through articulation, reflection and exploration (self-regulated learning) to become a master and trainer in his/her domain of knowledge and skill (contextual learning). In this way, a person becomes creative.

The purpose of the study is to review the literature for effective pedagogy in open and flexible learning environments at school level and develop a model for cognitive apprenticeships.